线上客户价值深挖(上)

线上客户价值深挖         先预祝大家2011圣诞节快乐。
       
        如果您的线上客户非常多,那么您可能会遇到:如何来划分这些客户的价值?如何针对区隔营销?这类问题。本文《线上客户价值深挖》便是要解决这个疑问,文章包括两部分,上部分:介绍客户价值划分的模型,下部分:介绍如何深挖。

        很多企业都知道现有客户(即:存量客户)的重要性,因为发现一个新客户的成本是保持一个老客户成本的3-5倍,线下营销是这么说滴,线上也是如此。在我前面写的《线上推广促进线下收入提升9.6%》强调了对现有客户的深度营销的重要性。那么,这些存量客户我们该如何来划分呢?也就是说,哪些客户是有价值的,哪些是没有价值的,哪些需要发展,哪些保持现状就好。

         这里,我想介绍一个模型,这个模型帮助过“广州的吉之岛”“联邦快递”等公司,目前,主要用于制造业、电信服务业、金融行业,无论是B2B和B2C都可以应用。

        他叫RFM模型。

一、什么是RFM模型?

        这个模型是衡量存量用户价值的三个维度。知道了用户价值,企业才能知道如何“对付”用户。

  • R(recency,最近一次购买):代表客户可能持续某个行为的可能性,这里主要是“购买”行为,收集最近一次购买的时间。当然,在用户行为里面,还包括:顾客登陆、下载等行为,这个指标都代表了其可能性;这要看你的测量目标是什么。
  • F(frequency,客户购买频率):代表客户的忠诚度。想必,这个词大家听得非常多。也就是在一段时间里,用户行为的次数。这个行为和R对应的行为是一致的。
  • M(monetary,消费额度),也就是在这段时间里,用户总共花了多少钱。

       

二、RFM模型简单应用

       那些B2B商城、B2C商城用这个模型非常不错。可以

       (一)先将R和F结合,以“购买”作为指标举例,可以看到几类用户:

  • (R高,F高):忠诚,且刚刚在我这有过消费,可以预见这类用户不久又会产生消费啦!值得庆幸!
  • (R高,F低):不怎么忠诚,但新近消费过一次,为啥来的次数不多呢?有没办法刺激一下呢?
  • (R低、F高):这个用户是忠诚的,但最近没来,有点问题,是不是有流失的风险,就得花点精力挽留下啦!
  • (R低、F低):这类用户不忠诚、且好久没来消费啦。也不用太过于操心啦。

      “RF”结合,已经可以帮助企业定位一部分客户啦。如果觉得不够,可以再加入“M”指标

     (二)在“RF”相互结合的基础上,加入“M”,情况又多了

  • (R高,F高,M高):重要价值客户。忠诚、持续且消费高,维系策略。
  • (R高,F高,M低):一般价值客户。现在消费低,需要“向上营销”“交叉营销”,提高单次购买额度。
  • (R高,F低,M高):重要发展客户。购买频次低,需要持续刺激。保持连续性沟通,刺激都来网站。
  • (R高,F低,M低):一般发展客户。新用户,但消费不足,需要发展。
  • (R低,F高,M高):重要保持客户。有流失风险的高价至客户,所以要重要保持。
  • (R低,F高,M低):一般保持客户。保持即可。
  • (R低,F低,M高):重要挽留客户。曾经有过高消费,但来得少,且好久没来啦。
  • (R低,F低,M低):一般挽留客户。这类客户基本没价值,一般挽留即可。

       以上,共有8中情况,  来看看,这个直观的图:

三、RFM模型的深度使用方法

     上面,我们只对模型有高和低两个指标区分,如果想要更加细化,有两种方法:

(一)3-5等分法

    即,将用户群的记录分别按照RMF三个指标进行排序,R按照最近消费的时间排序,M按照指定时间段消费的总金额,F按照指定时间段的消费次数。并将每个指标对应的用户群等分成5个数量相等的群体。并把每一个5等分的代号放入每一个数据库记录里,相应的标上5-1数字,就完成了对客户数据的RFM标号。如:某一个客户编号为532,那么,5代表最近消费时间在第一等分,3代表消费频次在第3等分,2代表消费金额在第4等分。

    3-5等分法,会形成5*5*5=125个单元,看看每一个客户散落在那个单元里,我们便可以对不同单元里的客户制定针对性策略。

(二)RFM的随意分割法

    3-5等分法,说了是按顺序进行相等的分隔,但有时候我们需要引入定性的概念,这时候可以进行随意分隔。如下:

  • R—最近消费:举例:超过12个月(编码1)、最近12个月之内(编码2)、最近6个月之内(编码3)、最近3个月之内   (编码4)、最近一个月之内(编码5);
  • F—频繁程度:举例:每6个月多月1次(编码1)、每6个月1次(编码2)、每3个月1次(编码3)、每2个月1次(编码4)、每个月1次(编码5);
  • M—消费额度:少于10元(编码1)、10-50元(编码2)、50-100元(编码3)、100-200元(编码4)、200元以上(编码5);

        RMF只是提供了一个客户价值判断的模型,每个企业根据自身情况可以扩展。如:广州吉之岛在最近消费时间(R)上,采用了把消费频率(F)和最近消费时间(R)相互结合的方法进行评估。如果客户的最近一次消费时间与到店频率偏差很大,吉之岛会在客户关系管理系统里产生客户流失预警的标识。

        本部分介绍了,线上客户价值的判断方法,《线上客户价值深挖(下)》我会介绍到针对不同价值的客户如何实施深挖策略。

26 thoughts on “线上客户价值深挖(上)

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