了解自己网店的财务状况

     如果你自己经营着一家网店,你是老板,起码要懂些财务知识。用财务指标来监控你经营的健康程度。在前面文章《经营网店一定要知道的健康指标》里,我介绍了“销售毛利率”,反应了你经营的收益情况,以及“存货周转率”反映了你的资产流动性情况。当然,这只是基础,如果想深入了解自己网店的经营状况,建议学习一点财务知识。毕竟,财务指标能给你的经营提供决策依据,也是指引你经营的风向标。

     这篇将以财务为主线,介绍网店经营要关注的财务指标。

(如果你对资产、负债、应收账款、成本、收入这些概念还不是太理解,可以先学习下基础会计的知识。 )

 

一、收益性指标

反映网店一定时期的收益和获利能力

 

含义

公式

资产报酬率 反映总资产带来的收益效果。 (净收益+利息费用+所得税)/平均资产总额
销售毛利率 反映网店的销售收入的收益水平 销售毛利/净销售收入
净利润额 反映网店收入的收益水平 净利润/净销售收入
成本费用利润率 反映网店为取得利润所付出的代价 (净收益+利息费用+所得税)/成本费用总额

 

二、安全性指标

是反映经营过程的安全程度,也就是资金调度的安全性。其目的在于观察企业在一定时期内的偿还债务的能力。

  含义 公式
流动比率 反映网店短期内偿债能力和信用状况 流动资产/流动负债
速动比率 反映网店立刻偿付流动负债的能力 速动资产/流动负债
资产负债率 反映网店总资产中有多少是负债 负债总额/资产总额

TIP:

速动资产:货币资金、交易性金融资产和各种应收、预付款项等,可以在较短的时间内变现;

流动资产:存货,货币资金、交易性金融资产和各种应收、预付款项等,统称为流动资产,就是流动性强,一年内能变现的资产

简单看来,流动资产—存货=速动资产

 

 

三、流动性指标

主要分析网店经营过程中的资金周转情况,掌握资金的运营效率。

 

含义

公式

总资产周转率 反映全部资产的使用效率 销售收入 / 平均资产总额
应收账款周转率 反映年度内应收账款的变现速度 应收账款周转率=应收账款回收额 / 应收账款平均余额,其中应收账款回收额 = 应收账款期初余额+主营业务收入净额-应收账款期末余额。
存货周转率 反映存货的变现速度 存货周转率(次数)= 销货成本 / 平均存货余额,其中:平均存货余额 =(期初存货+期末存货)/ 2

 

 

四、成长性指标

目的在观察网店在一定时期内经营能力的发展变化趋势。以发展的眼光看企业,动态的分析企业财务资料。

 

含义

公式

销售收入增长率 反映销售收入的变化趋势 本期销售收入 / 前期销售收入
税前利润增长率 反映税前利润的变化趋势 本期税前利润 / 前期税前利润
固定资产增长率 反映固定资产的变化趋势 本期固定资产 / 前期固定资产
人员增长率 反映人员变化趋势 本期职工人数 / 前期职工人数
经营成本降低率 反映经营成本变化趋势 本期经营成本 / 前期经营成本

 

 

五、生产性指标

分析生产性指标,目的在于了解一定时期内的企业生产经营能力、水平和成果的分配。

  含义 公式
人均销售收入 反映企业人均销售能力 销售收入 / 平均职工人数
人均净利润 反映企业经营管理水平 净利润 / 平均职工人数
人均资产总额 反映企业的生产经营能力 资产总额 / 平均职工人数
人均工资 反映企业成果分配状况 工资总额/ 平均职工人数

 

     以上,指标可以与行业的平均水平,或者竞争对手比较,了解当前网店的经营状况在同行中的情况,低于行业水平的需要加以改进,高于行业水平的需要保持。

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